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Why Amazon Dedicated Instances Is No Big Deal… and Why it Really Is

29 Mar
Why It’s No Big Deal

I was interested yesterday in the amount of excitement that Amazon’s announcement of dedicated instances caused.  To me this seems like a sensible move from a public cloud provider in order to counter the widespread belief in large enterprises that they need to be physically as well as logically separate.  This represents a maturation of public cloud offerings in much the way I’ve discussed in the past and demonstrates that public clouds can evolve to provide the kinds of additional security enterprises (currently) perceive that they require.  This can only be a good thing as bit by bit public cloud companies like Amazon are removing the FUD generated by IT departments and traditional IT service companies and commoditising this completely unimportant stuff so that we can all move on and talk about the real business opportunities of the cloud.

Beyond the satisfaction of seeing another ‘roadblock’ item ticked off the list, however, in technical terms this seems like no big deal to me.  Essentially Amazon are offering you the ability to have a compute instance that takes up all of the resources on a single physical machine (whether you need all of those resources or not) and so fits into their existing framework of differently sized compute instances.  From that perspective it doesn’t feel groundbreaking as it merely ‘tweaks’ their existing model to mark a physical machine as ‘full’ (I’m obviously over-simplifying but intentionally so).

For these reasons I don’t subscribe to the idea that this ‘breaks’ the cloud model or is in some way not multi-tenant since there are no upfront costs for hardware, you still pay for what you use and the whole platform infrastructure is still shared.  The only difference is that you can choose to have some of your compute instances marked as requiring the resources of a complete physical machine.  Interestingly this is also my understanding of how Azure works – their compute instances are broken down into subsets of a physical machine; if you take the biggest instance you’ve essentially got that machine to yourself (although I guess that’s a side-effect of design rather than a conscious offering as per Amazon).

Why It Really Is a Big Deal

So technically we can consider this move to be a relatively small deal even though it is perceived by many as a potentially game changing additional capability.

And frankly that’s the big deal.

Most ‘private cloud’ initiatives from enterprise IT or traditional IT service vendors start from the perspective of trying to protect existing models by merely adding virtualisation and management to existing estates.  They are trying to extend an old model of enterprise IT in the vague hope that it will give them the same benefits as public cloud.  The two things are not vaguely equivalent, however, and they are hugely underestimating the differences.  There is no way that such efforts will result in something as sophisticated as Amazon’s public cloud, something that has been built from the bottom up as an optimised, integrated and low cost service that commoditises many complex products, processes and infrastructure into a single platform that caters for general usage.  There’s just too much distraction and baggage (systems wise and business model wise) for such efforts to ever succeed.  It’s not even putting lipstick on a pig but more like fluffing its muddy hair a little and half closing your eyes.

On the other hand Amazon have proven that not only are they able to build a platform that can operate at high scale and low cost for a non-enterprise market but that this new model can also be extended to cater for enterprise needs.  And they can do this competitively because they have done the spade work required to serve a lower cost market.  Adding some features to separate tenants using your ability to manage a commodity platform (for example) is much easier than trying to work out how to strip huge costs from traditional models of ownership.  This is the traditional pattern of disruptive innovation where a competitor seen as unfit for purpose by demanding users builds solutions that are far more capable and cost effective for the low end before leveraging these benefits upwards to oust incumbent suppliers at the upper end of the market.

In evolutionary terms cloud is a point of ‘punctuated equilibrium’ where the criteria for fitness to survive changes rapidly – whereas previously an ability to afford the ownership of complex, bespoke IT was a competitive advantage, it has now become a distinct disadvantage for everything except a small set of differentiating processes that represent core capabilities.  Furthermore in such a rapidly changing environment companies like Amazon who are focused around a key part of the emerging value web (i.e. an infrastructural business model focused on a commoditised IT platform) can rapidly evolve based on the selection criteria of the market, leaving traditional participants trapped and encumbered by outmoded business models.

Today this traditional end of the market is populated by enterprise IT departments, software providers, hardware providers and IT service providers – all of whom will increasingly see huge losses of business when judged for fitness against commoditised public cloud platforms.  Essentially many such participants will literally have no competitive offering as they have been prevented from making the shift by their own evolution of traits specialised for a previous environment.  As a result expect to see even more rabid ‘cloud washing’ and pushing of ‘private clouds’ by such vendors as the literal need for them ebbs away – effectively many of them will need to extend existing business for as long as possible while bringing new cloud platforms to market or deciding to cede this business completely.

Effectively companies who to date have been incapable of changing are being eaten from underneath and must decide whether they try to compete (in which case they need significant business, structural and asset realignment) or retreat into other business types that don’t compete with platforms (so consulting or implementation of vertical business services for instance – for IT departments see here for a suggestion).

Why It’s a Really Big Deal For You

For me this announcement is further proof of my long standing belief that you cannot build a successful cloud platform as an extension of old models and from within a business for whom it is not their core concern.  Rather successful providers must be ruthlessly focused on building a new cloud platform that integrates, optimises and simplifies complex technologies into a low cost service.  As a cloud platform consumer you should therefore think very carefully about the implications of this and consider whether buying that hypervisor software, hardware and services for a private cloud implementation will really get you an Amazon of your very own – or just further baggage for your business to drag along.

UPDATE:  Added link to Amazon announcement at the beginning of the post as… I forgot.

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What’s the Future of SOA?

9 Nov

EbizQ asked last week for views on the improvements people believe are required to make SOA a greater success.  I think that if we step back we can see some hope – in fact increasing necessity – for SOA and the cloud is going to be the major factor in this.

If we think about the history of SOA to date it was easy to talk about the need for better integration across the organisation, clearer views of what was going on or the abstract notion of agility. Making it concrete and urgent was more of an issue, however. Whilst we can discuss the ‘failure’ of SOA by pointing to a lack of any application of service principles at a business level (i.e. organisationally through some kind of EA) this is really only a symptom and not the underlying cause. In reality the cause of SOA failure to date has been business inertia – organisations were already set up to do what they did, they did it well enough in a push economy and the (understandable) incentives for wholesale consideration of the way the business worked were few.

The cloud changes all of this, however. The increasing availability of cloud computing platforms and services acts as a key accelerator to specialisation and pull business models since it allows new entrants to join the market quickly, cheaply and scalably and to be more specialised than ever before. As a result many organisational capabilities that were economically unviable as market offerings are now becoming increasingly viable because of the global nature of cloud services. All of these new service providers need to make their capabilities easy to consume, however, and as a result are making good use of what people are now calling ‘apis’ in a web 2.0 context but which are really just services; this is important as one of the direct consequences of specialisation is the need to be hooked into the maximum number of appropriate value web participants as easily as possible.

On the demand side, as more and more external options become available in the marketplace that offer the potential to replace those capabilities that enterprises have traditionally executed in house, so leaders will start to rethink the purpose of their organisations and leverage the capabilites of external service providers in place of their own.

As a result cloud and SOA are indivisable if we are to realise the potential of either; cloud enables a much broader and more specialised set of business service providers to enter a global market with cost and capability profiles far better than those which an enterprise can deliver internally. Equally importantly, however, they will be implicitly (but concretely) creating a ‘business SOA catalogue’ within the marketplace, removing the need for organisations to undertake a difficult internal slog to re-implement or re-configure outdated capabilities for reuse in service models. Organisations need to use this insight now to trigger the use of business architecture techniques to understand their future selves as service-based organisations – both by using external services as archtypes to help them understand the ways in which they need to change and offer their own specialised services but also to work with potential partners to co-develop and then disaggregate those services in which they don’t wish to specialise in future.

Having said all that to set the scene for my answer(!) I believe that SOA research needs to be focused on raising the concepts of IT mediated service provision to a business level – including concrete modelling of business capabilities and value webs – along with complex service levels, contracts, pricing and composition – new cloud development platforms, tooling and management approaches linked more explicitly to business outcomes – and which give specialised support to different kinds of work – and the emergence of new 3rd parties who will mediate, monitor and monetise such relationships on behalf of participants in order to provide the required trust.

All in all I guess there’s still plenty to do.

Is Your Business Right For The Cloud?

15 Oct

I left a short comment on the ebizq website a couple of days ago in response to the question ‘is the cloud right for my business?’

I thought I’d also post an extended response here as I strongly believe that this is the wrong question.  Basically I see questions like this all the time and they are always framed and answered at the wrong level, generating a lot of heat – as people argue about the merits of public vs private infrastructures etc – but little insight.  Essentially there are a number of technology offerings available which may or may not meet the specific IT requirements of a business at a particular point in time.  Framed in the context of traditional business and IT models the issues raised often focus on the potentially limited benefits of a one to one replacement of internal with external capability in the context of a static business.  Its usually just presented as a question of whether I provide equivalent IT from somewhere else (usually somewhere dark and scary) or continue to run it in house (warm, cuddly and with tea and biscuits thrown in).  The business is always represented as static and unaffected by the cloud other than in the degree to which its supporting IT is (marginally) better or (significantly) worse.

If the cloud was truly just about taking a traditional IT managed service (with some marginal cost benefit) vs running it in house – as is usually positioned – then I wouldn’t see the point either and would remain in front of the heater in my carpet slippers with everyone else in IT.  Unfortunately for people stuck in this way of thinking  – and the businesses that employ them – the cloud is a much, much bigger deal.

Essentially people are thinking too narrowly in terms of what the cloud represents.  It’s not about having IT infrastructure somewhere else or sourcing ‘commodity applications’ differently.  These may be the low hanging fruit visible to IT folks currently but they are a symptom of the impact of cloud and not the whole story.

The cloud is all about the falling transaction costs of collaboration and the current impact on IT business models is really just a continuation of the disruptions of the broader Internet.  As a result whilst we’re currently seeing this disruption playing out in the IT industry (through the commoditisation of technology and a move towards shared computing of all kinds) it is inevitable that other industry disruptions will follow as the costs of consuming services from world-class partners plummets and the enabling technology becomes cheaper, more configurable, more social and more scalable as a result of the reformation of the IT industry.

Essentially all businesses need to become more adaptive, more connected and more specialised to succeed in the next ten years and the cloud will both force this and support it.  Getting your business to understand and plan for these opportunities – and having a strong cloud strategy to support them – is probably the single most important thing a CIO can do at the moment.  Not building your own ‘private cloud’ with no expertise or prior practice to package or concentrating on trying to stop business colleagues with an inkling of the truth from sourcing cloud services more appropriate to their needs.  Making best use of new IT delivery models to deliver truly competitive and world-class business capabilities for the emerging market is the single biggest strategic issue facing CIOs and the long term health of the businesses they serve.  There is both huge untapped value and terrific waste languishing inside existing business structures and both can be tackled head on with the help of the cloud.  Optimising the limited number of business capabilities that remain in a business’s direct control – as opposed to those increasingly consumed from partners – will be a key part of making reformed organisations fit for the new business ecosystem.

As a result the question isn’t whether the cloud is or will be ‘right’ for your business but rather how ‘right’ your business will be for the cloud. Those organisations that fail to take a broader view and move their business and technical models to be ‘right’ for the cloud will face a tough struggle to survive in a marketplace that has evolved far beyond their capabilities.

iPad not harbinger of PC doom according to Steve Jobs

9 Jun

After having put some time into thinking about people’s discomfort with the iPad a couple of weeks ago I was interested in this brief article in AppleInsider where Steve Jobs admits that the notion of a post-PC era is ‘uncomfortable’ for many people – a subject that I touched on in my post.  Jobs’ comments appear to support my own impressions that this is really just a maturation of the industry, a democratisation of access to computing for the masses and that it won’t undermine traditional computing for those with the necessary skills.  This should be a relief to people who worry that such devices will replace computers and thereby destroy the ability of individuals to be technically “generative”.   I also basically agree with his summary of tablets as a new form factor that replaces the need for a PC for many people, that PCs will continue to exist and that more choice is good (and although I still don’t agree with the Apple business model – and feel that it will suffer as other people replicate their innovations in more open ecosystems – only one of us is obscenely rich :-)).

More broadly my gut feel is that as the interfaces and capabilities of tablets increase in sophistication so we will be able to encourage more ‘vertical’ and ‘individual’ creativity and “generativity” in the population as a whole.  These people won’t be using the same tools as those we’ve had to learn to create through PC use but then they also won’t need that lower level, general-purpose control over raw computing that many people have had to learn merely to pursue higher level interests.  There will still be plenty of IT work – in fact more than ever – implementing applications and services to help these newly liberated consumers ignore the underlying computer and be creative within their own domains.

Cloud Platforms and Future Middleware

6 May

I’m going to try and break the habit of a lifetime in this ‘second life’ of my blog and post the odd ‘peppy’ comment on things I’ve seen as well as getting sucked into long analyses :-p

In that spirit I thought I’d just comment on a post I saw today by John Rymer at Forrester; essentially John was expressing some mild disappointment at a discussion about future app servers he was involved in and suggesting that the future of these products needs to be radically different in a connected, cloud environment.  I completely agreed with his points about more lightweight, specialised and virtualised ‘containers’ and this reflected the work I discussed in one of my older posts, where I talked about the need to use virtual templates, lightweight product and framework configurations, specific patterns and metadata plus domain specific languages and factories in pursuit of IT industrialisation.  Such lightweight and specialised containers for service realisation help to make developers more productive but also enable much greater agility and efficiency in resource usage by allowing each such service to change and scale according to its purpose and needs independent of the others.  In this sense I understand the feeling of one person who left a comment who described such platforms in terms of a fabric; this is probably an apt description given that you will have independent, specialised services bound to specific lightweight containers, ‘floating’ on a virtual infrastructure and collaborating with others to realise wider intent.  At heart a lot of John’s post was about simplifying, downsizing and specialising containers for different kinds of services and so I heartily agreed with his sentiments on the matter.

Business Enablement as a Key Cloud Element

30 Apr

After finally posting my last update about ‘Industrialised Service Delivery’ yesterday I have been happily catching up with the intervening output of some of my favourite bloggers.

One post that caught my eye was a reference from Phil Wainwright – whilst he was talking about the VMForce announcement – to a post he had written earlier in the year about Microsoft’s partnership with Intuit.  Essentially one of his central statements was related directly to the series of posts I completed yesterday (so part 1, part 2 and part 3):

“the breadth of infrastructure <required for SaaS> extends beyond the development functionality to embrace the entirely new element of service delivery capabilities. This is a platform’s support for all the components that go with the as-a-service business model, including provisioning, pay-as-you-go pricing and billing, service level monitoring and so on. Conventional software platforms have no conception of these types of capability but they’re absolutely fundamental to delivering cloud services and SaaS applications”.

This is one of the key points that I think is still – inexplicably – lost on many people (particularly people who believe that cloud computing is primarily about providing infrastructure as a service).  In reality the whole world is moving to service models because they are simpler to consume, deliver clearer value for more transparent costs and can be shared across organisations to generate economies of scale.  In fact ‘as a service’ models are increasingly not going to be an IT phenomenon but also going to extend to the way in which businesses deal with each other across organisational boundaries.  For the sale and consumption of such services to work, however, we need to be able to ‘deliver’ them; in this context we need to be able to market them, make them easy to subscribe to, manage billing and service levels transparently for both the supplier and consumer and enable rapid change and development over time to meet the evolving needs of service consumers.  As a result anyone who wants to deliver business capabilities in the future – whether these are applications or business process utilities – will need to be able to ensure that their offering exhibits all of these characteristics. 

Interestingly these ‘business enablement’ functions are pretty generic across all kinds of software and services since they essentially cover account management, subscription, business model definition, rating and billing, security, marketplaces etc etc (i.e. all of the capabilities that I defined as being required in a ‘Service Delivery Platform’).  In this context the use of the term ‘Service Delivery Platform’ in place of cloud or PaaS was deliberate; what next generation infrastructures need to do is enable people to deliver business services as quickly and as robustly as possible, with the platforms themselves also helping to ensure trust by brokering between the interests of consumers and suppliers through transparent billing and service management mechanisms.

This belief in service delivery is one of the reasons I believe that the notion of ‘private clouds’ is an oxymoron – I found this hoary subject raised again on a Joe McKendrick post after a discussion on ebizQ – even without the central point about the obvious loss of economies of scale; essentially  the requirement to provide a whole business enablement fabric to facilitate cross organisational service ecosystems – initially for SaaS but increasingly for organisational collaboration and specialisation – is just one of the reasons I believe that ‘Private Clouds’ are really just evolutions of on-premise architecture patterns – with all of the costs and complexity retained – and thus purely marketecture.  When decreasing transaction costs are enabling much greater cross organisational value chains the benefits of a public service delivery platform are immense, enabling organisations to both scale and evolve their operations more easily whilst also providing all of the business support they need to offer and consume business services in extended value chains.  Whilst some people may think that this is a pretty future-oriented reason to not like the notion of private clouds, for completeness I will also say that to me  – in the sense of customer owned infrastructures – they are an anachronism; again this is just an extension of existing models (for good or ill) and nothing to do with ‘cloud’.  It is only the fact that most protagonists of such models are vendors with very low level maturity offerings like packaged infrastructure and/or middleware solutions that makes it viable, since the complexity of delivering true private SDP offerings would be too great (not to mention ridiculously wasteful).  In my view ‘private clouds’ in the sense of end organisation deployment is just building a new internal infrastructure (whether self managed or via a service company) sort of like the one you already already have but with a whole bunch of expensive new hardware and software (so 90% of the expense but only 10% of the benefits). 

To temper this stance I do believe that there is a more subtle, viable version of ‘privacy’ that will be supported by ‘real’ service delivery platforms over time – that of having a logically private area of a public SDP to support an organisational context (so a cohesive collection of branded services, information and partner integrations – or what I’ve always called ‘virtual private platforms’).  This differs greatly from the ‘literally’ private clouds that many organisations are positioning as a mechanism to extend the life of traditional hardware, middleware or managed service offerings – the ability of service delivery platforms to rapidly instantiate ‘virtual’ private platforms will be a core competency and give the appearance and benefits of privacy whilst also maintaining the transformational benefits of leveraging the cloud in the first place.  To me literally ‘private clouds’ on an organisations own infrastructure – with all of their capital expense, complexity of operation, high running costs and ongoing drag on agility – only exist in the minds of software and service companies looking to extend out their traditional businesses for as long as possible. 

Industrialised Service Delivery Redux III

29 Apr

It’s a bit weird editing this more or less complete post 18 months later but this is a follow on to my previous posts here and here.  In those posts I discussed the need for much greater agility to cope with an increasingly unpredictable world and ran through the ways in which we can industrialise IT provision to focus on tangible business value and rapid realisation of business capability.  This story relied upon the core notion that technology is no longer a differentiator in and of itself and thus we just need workable patterns that meet our needs for particular classes of problem – which in turn reduces the design space we need to consider and allows increasing use of specialised platforms, templates and development tools.

In this final post I will discuss the notion that such standardisation calls into question the need to own such technology at all; essentially as platforms and tools become more standardised and available over the network so the importance of technology moves to access rather than ownership.

Future Consolidation

One of the interesting things from my perspective is that once you start to build out an asset-based business – like a service delivery platform – it quickly becomes subject to economies of scale.

It is rapidly becoming plain, therefore, that game changing trends such as:

  • Increasing middleware consolidation around traditional ‘mega platform’ providers;
  • Flexible infrastructure enabled by virtualisation technology;
  • Increasingly powerful abstractions such as service-orientation;
  • The growing influence of open source software and collaborating communities; and
  • The massively increased interconnectivity enabled by the web.

are all going to combine to change not just the shape of the IT industry itself but increasingly all industries; essentially as IT moves to service models so organisations will need to reshape themselves to align with these new realities, both in terms of their use of IT but also in terms of finding their distinctive place within their own disaggregating business ecosystems.

From a technology perspective it is therefore clear that these forces are combinatory and lead to accelerating commoditisation.  The implication of this acceleration is that decreasing differentiation should lead to increased consolidation as organisations no longer need to own and operate their own IT when such IT incurs cost and complexity penalties without delivering differentiation.

Picture1

In a related way such a shift by organisations to shared IT platforms is also likely to be an amplifying trend; as we see greater platform consolidation – and hence decreasing differentiation to organisations owning their own IT – so will laggard organisations become less competitive as a result of their expensive and high drag IT relative to their low cost, fleet of foot competitors.  Such organisations will then also seek to transition, eventually creating a tipping point at which ownership of IT becomes an anachronism.

From the supply perspective we can also see that as platforms become less differentiating and more commoditised they also become subject to increasing economies of scale – from an overall market perspective, therefore, offering platforms as a service becomes a far more effective use of capital than the creation and ownership of an island of IT, since scale technologies drift naturally towards consolidation.  There are some implications to this for the IT industry given the share of overall IT spend that goes on repeated individual installation and consulting for software and hardware but we shall leave that for another post.

As a result of these trends it is highly likely that we will see platform as a service propositions growing in influence fairly rapidly.  Initially these platforms are likely to be infrastructure-oriented and targeted at new SaaS providers or transitioning ISVs to lower the cost of entry but I believe that they will eventually expand to deliver the full business enablement support required by all organisations that need to exist in extended value webs (i.e. eventually everyone).  These latter platforms will need to have all of the capabilities I discussed in the previous post and will be far beyond the technology-centric platforms envisaged by the majority of emerging platform providers today.  Essentially as everybody becomes a service provider (or BPU in other terms) in their particular business ecosystem so they will need to rapidly realise, commercialise, manage and adapt the services they offer to their value webs.  In this latter scenario I believe that organisations will be caught in the jaws of a vise – the unbundling of capability to SaaS or other BPU providers to allow them to specialise and optimise the overall value stream will see their residual IT costs rocket as there are less capabilities to share it around; at the same time economies of scale produced by IT service companies will see the costs of platform as a service offerings plummet and make the transition a no brainer.

So what would a global SDP look like?

Picture2

Well remarkably like the one I showed in my previous posts given that I was leading up to this point, lol.  The first difference is that the main bulk of the platform is now explicitly deployed in the cloud – and it’ll obviously need to scale up and down smoothly and at low cost.  In addition all of the patterns that we discussed in my previous post will need to support multi-tenancy and such patterns will need to be built into the tools and factories that we will use to create systems optimised to run on our Service Delivery Platform.

At the same time the service factory becomes a way of enabling the broadest range of stakeholders to rapidly and reliably create services and applications that can be deployed to our platform – in fact it moves from being “just” an interesting set of tools to support industrialised capability realisation to being one of the main battlegrounds for PaaS providers trying to broaden their subscriber base by increasing the fidelity of realisation and reducing the barrier of entry to the lowest level possible.

Together the cloud platform and associated service factory will be the clear option of choice for most organisations, since it will yield the greatest economies of scale to the people using it.

One last element on this diagram that differentiates it from the earlier one is the on-premise ‘customer service platform’. In this context there is still a belief in many quarters that organisations will not want to physically share space and hardware with other people – they may be less mature, they may not trust sufficiently or they may genuinely have reasons why their data and services are so important that they are willing to pay to host them separately.  In the long term I do not subscribe to this view and to me the notion of ‘private clouds’ – outside of perhaps government and military use cases – is oxymoronic and at best a transitional situation as people learn to trust public infrastructures.  On the other hand whilst this may be playing with semantics I can see the case for ‘virtual private clouds’ (i.e. logically ring fenced areas of public clouds) that give the appearance and majority of benefits of being private through ‘soft’ partitioning (i.e. through logical security mechanisms) whilst allowing the retention of economies of scale through avoidance ‘hard’ partitioning (i.e. through separate physical infrastructure).  Indeed I would state that such mechanisms for making platforms appear private (including whitelabelling capabilities) will be necessary to support the branding requirements of resellers, systems integrators and end organisations.  For the sake of completeness, however, I would position transitional ‘private clouds’ as reduced functionality versions of a Service Delivery Platform that simply package up some hardware but leave the majority of the operational and business support – along with things like backup and failover – back at the main data centres of the provider in order to create an acceptable trade-off in cost.

Summary

So in this final post I have touched on some of the wider changes that are an implication of technology commoditisation and the industrialisation of service realisation.  For completeness I’ll recap the main messages from the three posts:

  • In post one I discussed how businesses are going to be forced to become much more aware of their business capabilities – and their value – by the increasingly networked and global nature of business ecosystems.  As a result they will be driven to concentrate very hard on realising their differentiating capabilities as quickly, flexibly and cost effectively as possible; in addition they will need to deliver these capabilities with stringent metrics.  This has some serious implications for the IT industry as we will need to shift away from a technology focus (where the client has to discover the value as a hit and miss emergent process) to one where we can demonstrate a much more mature, reliable and outcome based proposition. To do this we’ll need to build the platforms to realise capabilities effectively and in the broadest sense.
  • In post two I discussed how industrialisation is the creation and consistent application of known patterns, processes and infrastructures to increase repeatability and reliability. We might sacrifice some flexibility but increasing commoditisation of technology makes this far less important than cost effectiveness and reliability. When industrialising you need to understand your end to end process and then do the nasty bit – bottom up in excruciating detail.
  • Finally in post three I have discussed my belief that increasing standardisation of technology will lead to accelerating platform consolidation.  Essentially as technology becomes less differentiating and subject to economies of scale it’s likely that IT ownership and management will be less attractive. I believe, therefore, that we will see increasing and accelerating activity in the global Service Delivery Platform arena and that IT organisations and their customers need to have serious, robust and viable strategies to transition their business models.